1881 Census of England and Wales, Tables: Ages, Condition as to Marriage, Occupations and Birthplaces of people, Table 10 : " Occupations of Males and Females in the Division and its Registration Counties".

List Wandsworth RegD Clapham Holy Trinity AP/CP  
OCCUPATIONS. Males.
[1]
Females.
[2]
1. PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE GENERAL OR LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF THE COUNTRY. 293 Show data context 21 Show data context
  Peer, M.P., Privy Councillor (not otherwise described) 2 Show data context -
  Civil Service (officers and clerks) 129 Show data context 20 Show data context
  Civil Service (messengers, &c.) 59 Show data context -
  Prison Service, &c. 6 Show data context -
  Police 75 Show data context -
  Municipal, Parish, Union, District, Officer 19 Show data context -
  Other Local or County Official 2 Show data context -
  East Indian and Colonial Service 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
2. PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE DEFENCE OF THE COUNTRY. 62 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Army Officer (effective/retired) 18 Show data context -
  Soldier and Non-commissioned officer 9 Show data context -
  Militia, Yeomanry, Volunteers 4 Show data context -
  Army Pensioner 14 Show data context -
  Navy Officer (effective/retired) 10 Show data context -
  Seaman, R.N. 4 Show data context -
  Navy Pensioner 3 Show data context 1 Show data context
3. PERSONS ENGAGED IN PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS (WITH THEIR IMMEDIATE SUBORDINATES). 600 Show data context 490 Show data context
  Clergymen (Established Church) 19 Show data context -
  Roman Catholic Priest 6 Show data context -
  Minister, Priest of other religious bodies 9 Show data context -
  Missionary, Scripture Reader, Itinerant preacher 7 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Theological Student 1 Show data context -
  Church, chapel, cemetery - officer, servant 6 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Barrister, Solicitor 69 Show data context -
  Law Student 9 Show data context -
  Law Clerk, and others connected with the law 85 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Physician, Surgeon, General Practitioner 28 Show data context -
  Dentist 9 Show data context -
  Medical Student, Assistant 26 Show data context -
  Midwife - 2 Show data context
  Subordinate Medical Service 4 Show data context 75 Show data context
  Schoolmaster 71 Show data context 278 Show data context
  Teacher, Professor, Lecturer 16 Show data context 57 Show data context
  School Service, and others connected with teaching 5 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Author, Editor, Journalist 12 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Reporter, Short-hand Writer 9 Show data context -
  Persons engaged in Scientific Pursuits 5 Show data context -
  Literary, Scientific, Institution, Service, &c. 3 Show data context -
  Civil Engineer 52 Show data context -
  Land, House, Ship, Surveyor 26 Show data context -
  Painter (artist) 23 Show data context 9 Show data context
  Engraver (artist) 5 Show data context -
  Sculptor 2 Show data context -
  Architect 30 Show data context -
  Musician, Music Master 29 Show data context 44 Show data context
  Art Student 11 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Photographer 12 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Actor 2 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Art, Music, Theatre Service 1 Show data context -
  Performer, Showman, Exhibition, Service 1 Show data context -
  Billiard, Cricket & other Games, Service 7 Show data context -
4. PERSONS ENGAGED IN DOMESTIC OFFICES OR SERVICES. 481 Show data context 4,205 Show data context
  Domestic Coachman, Groom 133 Show data context -
  Domestic Gardener 104 Show data context -
  Domestic Indoor Servant 114 Show data context 3,502 Show data context
  Lodge, Gate, Park Keeper (not Government) 2 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Inn, Hotel Servant 67 Show data context 30 Show data context
  College, Club Service 3 Show data context -
  Office Keeper (not Government) 2 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Cook (not domestic) 7 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Charwoman - 98 Show data context
  Washing and Bathing Service 16 Show data context 546 Show data context
  Hospital and Institution Service 8 Show data context 19 Show data context
  Others engaged in Service 25 Show data context 2 Show data context
5. PERSONS ENGAGED IN COMMERCIAL OCCUPATIONS. 1,116 Show data context 28 Show data context
  Merchant 66 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Broker, Agent, Factor 84 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Auctioneer, Appraiser, Valuer, House Agent 23 Show data context -
  Accountant 35 Show data context -
  Salesman, Buyer (not otherwise specified) 2 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Commercial Traveller 97 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Commercial Clerk 667 Show data context 21 Show data context
  Officer of Commercial Company, Guild, Society &c. 2 Show data context -
  Banker 3 Show data context -
  Bank Service 93 Show data context -
  Bill Discounter, Bill Broker, Finance Agent 4 Show data context -
  Life, House, Ship &c., Insurance Service 40 Show data context 1 Show data context
6. PERSONS ENGAGED IN CONVEYANCE OF MEN, GOODS, AND MESSAGES. 901 Show data context 8 Show data context
  Railway Engine Driver, Stoker 48 Show data context -
  Railway Guard 23 Show data context -
  Pointsman, Level Crossing Man 2 Show data context -
  Other Railway Officials and Servants 194 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Omnibus, Coach, Cab, Owner - Livery Stable Keeper 15 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Cabman, Flyman, Coachman (not domestic) 173 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Carman, Carrier, Carter, Haulier 169 Show data context -
  Tramway Companies' Service 21 Show data context -
  Wheel Chair Proprietor, Attendant &c. 1 Show data context -
  Bargeman, Lighterman, Waterman 1 Show data context -
  Navigation Service (on shore) 4 Show data context -
  Seaman (Merchant Service) 20 Show data context -
  Harbour, Dock, Wharf, Lighthouse Service 8 Show data context -
  Warehouseman (not Manchester) 50 Show data context -
  Messenger, Porter, Watchman (not Railway or Government) 167 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Telegraph, Telephone Service 5 Show data context 2 Show data context
7. PERSONS ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE. 197 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Farmer, Grazier 12 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Farm Bailiff 1 Show data context -
  Agricultural Labourer, Farm Servant, Cottager 19 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Woodman 1 Show data context -
  Nurseryman, Seedsman, Florist 14 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Gardener (not domestic) 150 Show data context 2 Show data context
8. PERSONS ENGAGED ABOUT ANIMALS. 105 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Horse Proprietor, Breeder, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Groom, Horse-keeper, Horse-breaker 59 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Veterinary Surgeon, Farrier 39 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Cattle, Sheep, Pig - Dealer, Salesman 1 Show data context -
  Drover 1 Show data context -
  Dog, Bird, Animal - Keeper, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Knacker, Catsmeat Dealer &c &c. 2 Show data context -
9. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN BOOKS, PRINTS, AND MAPS. 184 Show data context 12 Show data context
  Publisher, Bookseller, Librarian 46 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Music-Publisher, Seller, Printer 3 Show data context -
  Bookbinder 21 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Printer 92 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Newspaper Agent, News Room Keeper 12 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Lithographer, Lithographic Printer 10 Show data context 1 Show data context
10. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN MACHINES AND IMPLEMENTS. 277 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Engine, Machine Maker 51 Show data context -
  Millwright 1 Show data context -
  Fitter, Turner (Engine and Machine) 105 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Boiler Maker 36 Show data context -
  Agricultural Machine and Implement Maker 1 Show data context -
  Tool Maker, Dealer 3 Show data context -
  Cutler, Scissors Maker 1 Show data context -
  Watch Maker, Clock Maker 26 Show data context -
  Philosophical Instrument Maker 6 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Electrical Apparatus Maker 4 Show data context -
  Weighing and Measuring Apparatus Maker 4 Show data context -
  Surgical Instrument Maker 3 Show data context -
  Gunsmith, Gun Manufacturer 5 Show data context -
  Musical Instrument Maker, Dealer 28 Show data context -
  Die, Seal, Coin, Medal Maker 1 Show data context -
  Apparatus for other games, Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
11. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN HOUSES, FURNITURE, AND DECORATIONS. 1,382 Show data context 30 Show data context
  Builder 113 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Carpenter, Joiner 375 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Bricklayer 230 Show data context -
  Mason 61 Show data context -
  Slater, Tiler 6 Show data context -
  Plasterer, Whitewasher 68 Show data context -
  Paperhanger 16 Show data context -
  Plumber 91 Show data context -
  Painter, Glazier 247 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Cabinet Maker 60 Show data context 12 Show data context
  French Polisher 19 Show data context -
  Furniture Broker, Dealer 7 Show data context -
  Locksmith, Bellhanger 4 Show data context -
  Gas Fitter 39 Show data context -
  House and Shop Fittings - Maker, Dealer 5 Show data context -
  Funeral Furniture Maker, Undertaker 12 Show data context -
  Wood Carver 2 Show data context -
  Carver, Gilder 20 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Dealer in Works of Art 5 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Animal, Bird &c. Preserver, Naturalist 1 Show data context -
  Artificial Flower Maker 1 Show data context 3 Show data context
12. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN CARRIAGES AND HARNESS. 163 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Coachmaker 99 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Railway Carriage, Railway Wagon, Maker 15 Show data context -
  Wheelwright 24 Show data context -
  Bicycle, Tricycle - Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Others 2 Show data context -
  Saddler, Harness, Whip Maker 21 Show data context -
13. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN SHIPS AND BOATS. 10 Show data context -
  Ship, Boat, Barge Builder 6 Show data context -
  Sail Maker 4 Show data context -
14. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN CHEMICALS AND COMPOUNDS. 42 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Dye, Paint Manufacture 4 Show data context -
  Ink, Blacking, Colour Substance Manufacture 3 Show data context -
  Gunpowder, Guncotton, Explosive Substance Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Fusee, Fireworks, Explosive Article Manufacture - 3 Show data context
  Chemist, Druggist 28 Show data context -
  Manufacturing Chemist 5 Show data context -
  Drysalter 1 Show data context -
15. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN TOBACCO AND PIPES. 21 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Tobacco Manufacture, Tobacconist 14 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Tobacco Pipe, Snuff Box &c. Maker 7 Show data context -
16. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN FOOD AND LODGING. 853 Show data context 85 Show data context
  Innkeeper, Hotel Keeper, Publican 42 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Lodging, Boarding House Keeper - 16 Show data context
  Coffee, Eating House, Keeper 12 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Hop - Merchant, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Brewer 50 Show data context -
  Beerseller, Ale, Porter, Cider Dealer 27 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Cellarman 23 Show data context -
  Wine, Spirit - Merchant, Agent 34 Show data context -
  Milkseller, Dairyman 51 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Cheesemonger, Butterman 14 Show data context -
  Butcher, Meat Salesman 113 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Provision Curer, Dealer 13 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Poulterer, Game Dealer 13 Show data context -
  Fishmonger 37 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Corn, Flour, Seed Merchant, Dealer 35 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Corn Miller 2 Show data context -
  Baker 127 Show data context 12 Show data context
  Confectioner, Pastrycook 25 Show data context 9 Show data context
  Greengrocer, Fruiterer 72 Show data context 13 Show data context
  Mustard, Vinegar, Spice, Pickle Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Sugar Refiner 6 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Grocer. Tea, Coffee, Chocolate Maker, Dealer 155 Show data context 9 Show data context
17. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN TEXTILE FABRICS. 182 Show data context 131 Show data context
  Woolstapler 2 Show data context -
  Woollen Cloth Manufacture 5 Show data context -
  Cloth, Worsted, Stuff, Flannel, Blanket Dealer 11 Show data context -
  Silk, Silk Goods, Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Silk Dyer, Printer 2 Show data context -
  Silk Merchant, Dealer 5 Show data context -
  Lace Manufacturer, Dealer 4 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Rope, Twine, Cord - Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Sacking, Sack, Bag - Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Dyer, Printer, Scourer, Bleacher, Calenderer (undefined) 4 Show data context 10 Show data context
  Factory Hand (textile, undefined) - 5 Show data context
  Carpet, Rug Manufacture 2 Show data context -
  Manchester Warehouseman 3 Show data context -
  Draper, Linen Draper, Mercer 131 Show data context 89 Show data context
  Fancy Goods (Textile) Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 3 Show data context 13 Show data context
  Trimming Maker, Dealer 3 Show data context -
  Embroiderer 2 Show data context 9 Show data context
18. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN DRESS. 282 Show data context 671 Show data context
  Hatter, Hat Manufacture 13 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Straw - Hat, Bonnet, Plait Manufacture - 4 Show data context
  Tailor 87 Show data context 30 Show data context
  Milliner, Dressmaker, Staymaker 8 Show data context 546 Show data context
  Shirt Maker, Seamstress 4 Show data context 68 Show data context
  Hosier, Haberdasher 15 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Shoe, Boot - Maker, Dealer 122 Show data context 11 Show data context
  Wig Maker, Hair Dresser 23 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Umbrella, Parasol, Stick - Maker, Dealer 6 Show data context -
  Accoutrement Maker 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Old Clothes Dealer, and others 3 Show data context 7 Show data context
19. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. 29 Show data context 8 Show data context
  Tallow Chandler, Candle, Grease Manufacture 2 Show data context -
  Soap Boiler, Maker 1 Show data context -
  Glue, Size, Gelatine, Isinglass - Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Manure Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Furrier, Skinner 1 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Tanner, Fellmonger 3 Show data context -
  Currier 11 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Leather Goods, Portmanteau, Bag, Strap &c., Maker, Dealer 8 Show data context -
  Brush, Broom, Maker - 2 Show data context
  Quill, Feather - Dresser, Dealer - 2 Show data context
20. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES. 117 Show data context 30 Show data context
  Oil Miller, Oil Cake - Maker, Dealer 7 Show data context -
  Oil and Colourman 29 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Others 1 Show data context -
  Willow, Cane, Rush Worker, Dealer, Basketmaker 1 Show data context -
  Hay, Straw (not plait), Chaff, Cutter, Dealer 3 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Timber, Wood - Merchant, Dealer 14 Show data context -
  Sawyer 12 Show data context -
  Wood Turner, Box Maker 6 Show data context -
  Cooper, Hoop Maker, Bender 5 Show data context -
  Cork, Bark - Cutter, Worker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Paper Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Envelope Maker - 1 Show data context
  Stationer, Law Stationer 31 Show data context 21 Show data context
  Card, Pattern Card Maker - 1 Show data context
  Paper Stainer 5 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Paper Box, Paper Bag Maker - 1 Show data context
  Others 1 Show data context -
21. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS MINERAL SUBSTANCES. 472 Show data context 18 Show data context
  Coal Miner 1 Show data context -
  Mine Service 1 Show data context -
  Coal Merchant 8 Show data context -
  Coalheaver 29 Show data context -
  Coke, Charcoal, Peat - Cutter, Burner, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Gas Works Service 12 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Stone Cutter, Dresser, Dealer 9 Show data context -
  Clay, Sand, Gravel, Chalk, Labourer, Dealer 5 Show data context -
  Plaster, Cement Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Brick, Tile - Maker, Burner, Dealer 5 Show data context -
  Paviour 6 Show data context -
  Road Contractor, Surveyor, Inspector 3 Show data context -
  Road Labourer 10 Show data context -
  Railway Contractor 6 Show data context -
  Platelayer 14 Show data context -
  Railway Labourer, Navvy 32 Show data context -
  Others 1 Show data context -
  Earthenware, China, Porcelain, Manufacture 10 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Glass Manufacture 11 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Earthenware, China, Glass Dealer 14 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Salt Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Waterworks Service 7 Show data context -
  Others 1 Show data context -
  Goldsmith, Silversmith, Jeweller 43 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Gold, Silver, Beater 1 Show data context -
  Lapidary 1 Show data context -
  Others 1 Show data context -
  [Iron Manufacture] 28 Show data context -
  [Steel Manufacture] 1 Show data context -
  Blacksmith 71 Show data context -
  Whitesmith 24 Show data context -
  Nail Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Ironmonger. Hardware Dealer, Merchant 42 Show data context 2 Show data context
  [Coppersmith] 15 Show data context -
  Tin, Tin Plate, Tin Goods - Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 12 Show data context -
  Zinc, Zinc Goods - Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 13 Show data context -
  Lead, Leaden Goods - Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 4 Show data context -
  Metal Refiner, Worker, Turner, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Brass, Bronze Manufacture. Brazier 21 Show data context -
  White Metal, Plated Ware, Manufacture. Pewterer 1 Show data context -
  Lamp, Lantern, Candlestick Maker 3 Show data context 2 Show data context
22. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN GENERAL OR UNSPECIFIED COMMODITIES. 839 Show data context 59 Show data context
  General Shopkeeper, Dealer 57 Show data context 23 Show data context
  Pawnbroker 16 Show data context -
  Costermonger, Huckster, Street Seller 21 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Manufacturer, Manager, Superintendant (undefined) 26 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Contractor (undefined) 6 Show data context -
  General Labourer 563 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Engine Driver, Stoker, Fireman (not railway, marine or agricultural) 37 Show data context -
  Artizan, Mechanic (undefined) 67 Show data context 10 Show data context
  Apprentice (undefined) 7 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Factory Labourer (undefined) 30 Show data context -
  Machinist, Machine Worker (undefined) 9 Show data context 14 Show data context
23. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN REFUSE MATTERS. 26 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Town Drainage Service 1 Show data context -
  Chimney Sweep, Soot Merchant 21 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Scavenger, Crossing Sweeper 3 Show data context -
  Rag Gatherer, Dealer 1 Show data context -
24. PERSONS WITHOUT SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS. 386 Show data context 1,315 Show data context
  Persons returned by Property, Rank &c. and not special occupation 386 Show data context 1,315 Show data context
[UNKNOWN OCCUPATION] 237 Show data context 5,735 Show data context
  [Occupation recorded but of unknown meaning] 8 Show data context 1 Show data context
  [Blank field, or illegible] 229 Show data context 5,734 Show data context

Notes:

The following notes to the table appeared in the original report.

1 This table is a very special case: The original Table 10 as published by Division in the 1881 census reports was limited to data for Registration Divisions, their component Registration Counties, and just those Urban Sanitary Districts with populations of over 50,000. Data presented here for counties and higher-level units are taken from the published reports, as usual, but we also include in A Vision of Britain through Time data for Registration Districts, sub-Districts and Civil Parishes which never appeared in the original reports. These were specially created for us by the History Data Service at the University of Essex and derive from the complete transcription of the individual-level Enumerators Book data coordinated by the Genealogical Society of Utah.
2 In creating these data, each occupation listed in the enumerators books has been assigned as far as possible to the relevant category used in the published reports, but some additional categories with labels in square brackets unavoidably appear. Unlike the published statistics for higher-level units, these specially-calculated data for districts and parishes include persons under 15 or over 65. For these and other reasons, no attempt has been made to ensure that county totals for the districts or parishes match the published county totals. The remaining notes are those that appeared below the original published table.
3 NOTE.--Persons returned as engaged in more than one occupation have been referred to the one that appeared to be of most importance; or if there was no difference in this respect, to the one first given by the person in his or her return. In some cases special rules have been followed: e.g. "Clergyman and Schoolmaster" in combination has always been referred to "Schoolmaster"; a Member of Parliament or Peer engaged in any branch of commerce or industry has always been referred to this latter, not to "Peer, M.P.".
4 The numbers returned under any heading include Labourers, Apprentices, and Assistants, as well as Masters, but not Clerks, Messengers, Errand boys, Porters, or Watchmen, for which occupations there are special headings. Civil, Military, and Naval Clerks, Law, Bank, Insurance, and Railway Clerks, and Government and Railway Porters, are, however, exceptions to this rule. Many young persons, being Apprentices or Assistants, have therefore been referred to occupations usually followed by adults. Women also, chiefly widows or orphans carrying on the business of their deceased husbands or fathers, will sometimes be found under occupations commonly followed by men only.
5 Persons returned as retired from any business have not been referred to that business. Inmates of workhouses have been referred to their trades, unless their age or infirmities showed that they were past work. But persons who might be supposed to be only temporarily separated from their usual employment, such as Prisoners, and Patients in General Hospitals, have been classed under their usual occupations.
6 In some cases, for convenience of space, the male designation, e.g. "Schoolmaster", alone is given, instead of "Schoolmaster, Schoolmistress".

Click on the triangles for all about a particular number.

This website does not try to provide an exact replica of the original printed census tables, which often had thousands of rows and far more columns than will fit on our web pages. Instead, we let you drill down from national totals to the most detailed data available. The column headings are those that appeared in the original printed report. The numbers presented here, which are the same ones we use to create statistical maps and graphs, come from the census table and have usually been carefully checked.

The system can only hold statistics for units listed in our administrative gazetteer, so some rows from the original table may be missing. Sometimes big low-level units, like urban parishes, were divided between more than one higher-level units, like Registration sub-Districts. This is why some pages will give a higher figure for a lower-level unit: it covers the whole of the lower-level unit, not just the part within the current higher-level unit.


Acknowledgments:

We are grateful to the following contributors. If you make use of the data in your own work, please follow any instructions given here on acknowledgment and re-use.

(1) Kevin Schurer (Department of Geography, University of Cambridge). Role: editor. Restrictions on use: the data cannot be accessed, although the Vision of Britain system may present them graphically (any other use requires the contributor's permission.)

(2) Matthew Woollard (UK Data Service, University of Essex). Role: editor. Restrictions on use: the data cannot be accessed, although the Vision of Britain system may present them graphically (any other use requires the contributor's permission.)